Ocd research paper

Due to the nature of OCD, the child may inherit the disorder but not the symptoms.Among subclinical compulsive checkers, several studies reported deficits in memory for actions performed.

The evidence clearly shows that treatment with SRIs reduces OCD symptoms (see the following treatment section).

In each of these cases, similarity of symptoms, comorbidity evidence, and response to treatment suggest that these disorders are closely related to OCD.The most common compulsions are checking rituals, which are usually designed to prevent catastrophes like fire, burglary, causing someone harm, or embarrassing oneself.Studies of genetic involvement in OCD have been inconsistent.They categorize in an underinclusive way, such that many small categories are generated with narrow boundaries and overspecifled rules for category membership.Exposure and response prevention activate the fear structure causing the patient to experience anxiety.So it is possible that this increased use of energy is the cause of OCD. (7).

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Attempts to develop cognitive treatments for OCD developed out of the realization of the importance of belief structures and cognitive processing in the disorder.

Most of the time people are successful in keeping it a secret from their friends and co-workers, but the downside is that they do not get the necessary help until years later after which they have learned to work their lives around their obsessions and compulsions. (4).Culture-specific beliefs, as illustrated by koro (a fear of penile shrinkage found exclusively in Chinese cultures), also suggest the influence culture has on the expression of OCD symptoms.According to behavioral theory, exposure should reduce anxiety associated with obsessions, while response prevention should influence rituals more than obsessions.

The serotonin is usually cleaned out of the synapses by enzymes located in the brain. (6) It has been found that drugs that increase the levels of serotonin in the brain reduce the OCD symptoms.Neuropharmacological explanations have focused on the role of the serotonergic transmission system, and neuroanatomical explanations have concentrated on the orbitofrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and their connections.Five commonly prescribed SRIs in the United States are clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.Research on predictors of success with ERP has failed to reveal consistent trends.Reviews of the available literature have recommended cingulotomy as the first choice for psychosurgery with these patients.Preliminary findings from one study suggest that using self-help texts can lead to significant improvement.Further developments along these lines include using family members as treatment assistants.The content of obsessions and compulsions vary considerably from patient to patient, sharing only the disturbing nature of the intrusions and the ritualistic efforts to neutralize the obsessions.

I am writing a research paper on OCD for school and I need help with my introduction paragraph.Positron-emission tomography (PET) and related technology have generated dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biology of OCD.Obsessive compulsive disorder is a disorder that can be more.

Other research suggests that patients with schizotypal personality disorder respond poorly to SRI treatment for OCD.Recent prospective studies of the course of OCD indicate that despite significant advances in treatment, most OCD patients (at least 75 %) remain at least partially symptomatic over the long term.But as a research it has not been mastered. (Cooper 9) Freud also found evidence.That is, they anticipate danger or misfortune more readily than nonobsessionals and may believe in the need to be concerned about danger and to dwell on its possible occurrence in order to protect themselves.There is also evidence that treatment with medications or behavior therapy.An important question concerning the relationship of OCD and depression is whether the depression that accompanies OCD is primary or secondary.

At least moderate improvement occurs with SRIs in 55 to 70% of previously untreated patients.Although our knowledge of the nature and treatment of this disorder is far greater than it was a decade ago, there remain significant gaps.While this can account for the onset of a number of cases, there is evidence that it does not account for all.When the ritual is prevented, habituation of anxiety will eventually occur.Comorbidity of OCD with other disorders is as high as 60% or more.

The basal ganglia assist in the regulation of movement and cognitive functioning.Such efforts at control are hypothesized to be evident in hypervigilance for mental events, in a moral attitude toward control as a virtue, and in feared psychological and behavioral consequences of the failure to control thoughts.Dosage ranges have been partly tested for fluoxetine, with higher doses (up to 60 mg) producing better results, but additional research is needed to identify optimal dosage ranges for the SRIs.Direct evidence of the role of serotonin in OCD comes from two types of studies.

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Others have suggested that because of their need for certainty, OCD patients repeat actions in an attempt to achieve perfect certainty.These patients have been found to respond poorly to treatment.These thoughts are unable to be suppressed and can result in severe anxiety.

Some clinical, as well as empirical, research supports this hypothesis.Several information processing capabilities, including memory, categorization, and attention, have been hypothesized to distinguish OCD patients from nonpatients.Recent research on thought-action fusion supports the importance of this construct.There are various types of treatments out there to treat OCD.Although this model clearly accounts for the maintenance of OCD symptoms, it does not adequately account for many instances of onset, and expansion of this theory is necessary.Rather than forming an hypothesis about an obsessional fear (the table is dirty) and testing it (feeling the table), the person with OCD changes the evidence to fit the hypothesis (the table must be dirty because I can imagine it dirty).

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